Islamic State, also known as ISIS, fighters have committed grave violations of medical impartiality. ISIS militants have on a number of occasions executed doctors. In January 2015, ISIS executed 10 doctors in Mosul after they refused to treat their militants. Ten more doctors were reportedly executed in April 2015 in Hammam al-Alil, south of Mosul. In March 2016, ISIS gunmen executed five women, one of whom was a doctor who allegedly refused to treat wounded fighters in Al-Ghazlani Camp in Mosul. Additionally, ISIS transformed Mosul’s Al Khansa Maternity Hospital and Al Salam Hospital into centers for command and control. The militant group used ambulances to launch attacks against civilians and medical facilities. In 6 November 2016, ISIS launched suicide attacks using ambulances that killed 21 people in the cities of Tikrit and Samarra. On 2 January 2017, ISIS claimed responsibility for a car bomb set off in the parking lot of al-Kindi Teaching hospital east of Baghdad.

In Mosul Battle, the Iraq Security Forces and the US-led coalition attacked medical facilities without giving warning, in violation of the laws of war. On 7 December 2016, the US-led coalition targeted Al Salam Hospital without issuing an effective warning. On October 18, an airstrike hit a clinic occupied by ISIS fighters in the town of Hammam al-Alil, located 30 kilometers southeast of Mosul, without warning.